Protection Schemes For Generators and Recommended Settings Course

Explore protection schemes for generators and recommended settings in this training course. Develop expertise in maintaining reliable generator operation. BMC Training offers Protection Schemes For Generators and Recommended Settings Course in Electrical and Power Engineering Training Courses.

  • English
  • 154 Training Sessions
  • Confirmed
  • One Week
Protection Schemes For Generators and Recommended Settings Training Course

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Dubai , UAE 23 - Jun - 2024 27 - Jun - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 23 - Jun - 2024 27 - Jun - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 23 - Jun - 2024 27 - Jun - 2024 9100 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 23 - Jun - 2024 27 - Jun - 2024 11500 GBP
London , UK 7 - Jul - 2024 11 - Jul - 2024 5950 GBP
Madrid , Spain 7 - Jul - 2024 11 - Jul - 2024 7500 GBP
Munich , Germany 7 - Jul - 2024 11 - Jul - 2024 8900 GBP
Berlin , Germany 7 - Jul - 2024 11 - Jul - 2024 8300 GBP
New York , United States 7 - Jul - 2024 11 - Jul - 2024 12750 GBP
Amsterdam , Netherlands 7 - Jul - 2024 11 - Jul - 2024 9100 GBP
Dubai , UAE 14 - Jul - 2024 18 - Jul - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 14 - Jul - 2024 18 - Jul - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 14 - Jul - 2024 18 - Jul - 2024 9100 GBP
Dubai , UAE 21 - Jul - 2024 25 - Jul - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 21 - Jul - 2024 25 - Jul - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 21 - Jul - 2024 25 - Jul - 2024 9100 GBP
Istanbul , Turkey 28 - Jul - 2024 1 - Aug - 2024 5550 GBP
Bali , Indonesia 28 - Jul - 2024 1 - Aug - 2024 8700 GBP
Singapore , Singapore 28 - Jul - 2024 1 - Aug - 2024 8400 GBP
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Dubai , UAE 28 - Jul - 2024 1 - Aug - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 28 - Jul - 2024 1 - Aug - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 28 - Jul - 2024 1 - Aug - 2024 9100 GBP
Dubai , UAE 7 - Jul - 2024 11 - Jul - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 7 - Jul - 2024 11 - Jul - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 7 - Jul - 2024 11 - Jul - 2024 9100 GBP
Milan , Italy 7 - Jul - 2024 11 - Jul - 2024 7500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 14 - Jul - 2024 18 - Jul - 2024 11500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 21 - Jul - 2024 25 - Jul - 2024 11500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 28 - Jul - 2024 1 - Aug - 2024 11500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 7 - Jul - 2024 11 - Jul - 2024 11500 GBP
Istanbul , Turkey 4 - Aug - 2024 8 - Aug - 2024 5550 GBP
Bali , Indonesia 4 - Aug - 2024 8 - Aug - 2024 8700 GBP
Singapore , Singapore 4 - Aug - 2024 8 - Aug - 2024 8400 GBP
Washington , United States 4 - Aug - 2024 8 - Aug - 2024 13500 GBP
Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia 11 - Aug - 2024 15 - Aug - 2024 5300 GBP
Rome , Italy 11 - Aug - 2024 15 - Aug - 2024 7900 GBP
Barcelona , Spain 11 - Aug - 2024 15 - Aug - 2024 8300 GBP
Zurich , Switzerland 11 - Aug - 2024 15 - Aug - 2024 8700 GBP
Dubai , UAE 18 - Aug - 2024 22 - Aug - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 18 - Aug - 2024 22 - Aug - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 18 - Aug - 2024 22 - Aug - 2024 9100 GBP
London , UK 25 - Aug - 2024 29 - Aug - 2024 5950 GBP
Madrid , Spain 25 - Aug - 2024 29 - Aug - 2024 7500 GBP
Munich , Germany 25 - Aug - 2024 29 - Aug - 2024 8900 GBP
Berlin , Germany 25 - Aug - 2024 29 - Aug - 2024 8300 GBP
New York , United States 25 - Aug - 2024 29 - Aug - 2024 12750 GBP
Amsterdam , Netherlands 25 - Aug - 2024 29 - Aug - 2024 9100 GBP
Dubai , UAE 11 - Aug - 2024 15 - Aug - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 11 - Aug - 2024 15 - Aug - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 11 - Aug - 2024 15 - Aug - 2024 9100 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 18 - Aug - 2024 22 - Aug - 2024 11500 GBP
Milan , Italy 25 - Aug - 2024 29 - Aug - 2024 7500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 11 - Aug - 2024 15 - Aug - 2024 11500 GBP
London , UK 22 - Sep - 2024 26 - Sep - 2024 5950 GBP
Madrid , Spain 22 - Sep - 2024 26 - Sep - 2024 7500 GBP
Munich , Germany 22 - Sep - 2024 26 - Sep - 2024 8900 GBP
Berlin , Germany 22 - Sep - 2024 26 - Sep - 2024 8300 GBP
New York , United States 22 - Sep - 2024 26 - Sep - 2024 12750 GBP
Amsterdam , Netherlands 22 - Sep - 2024 26 - Sep - 2024 9100 GBP
Dubai , UAE 1 - Sep - 2024 5 - Sep - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 1 - Sep - 2024 5 - Sep - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 1 - Sep - 2024 5 - Sep - 2024 9100 GBP
Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia 8 - Sep - 2024 12 - Sep - 2024 5300 GBP
Rome , Italy 8 - Sep - 2024 12 - Sep - 2024 7900 GBP
Barcelona , Spain 8 - Sep - 2024 12 - Sep - 2024 8300 GBP
Zurich , Switzerland 8 - Sep - 2024 12 - Sep - 2024 8700 GBP
Istanbul , Turkey 15 - Sep - 2024 19 - Sep - 2024 5550 GBP
Bali , Indonesia 15 - Sep - 2024 19 - Sep - 2024 8700 GBP
Singapore , Singapore 15 - Sep - 2024 19 - Sep - 2024 8400 GBP
Washington , United States 15 - Sep - 2024 19 - Sep - 2024 13500 GBP
Dubai , UAE 15 - Sep - 2024 19 - Sep - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 15 - Sep - 2024 19 - Sep - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 15 - Sep - 2024 19 - Sep - 2024 9100 GBP
Dubai , UAE 22 - Sep - 2024 26 - Sep - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 22 - Sep - 2024 26 - Sep - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 22 - Sep - 2024 26 - Sep - 2024 9100 GBP
Milan , Italy 22 - Sep - 2024 26 - Sep - 2024 7500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 1 - Sep - 2024 5 - Sep - 2024 11500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 15 - Sep - 2024 19 - Sep - 2024 11500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 22 - Sep - 2024 26 - Sep - 2024 11500 GBP
Istanbul , Turkey 20 - Oct - 2024 24 - Oct - 2024 5550 GBP
Bali , Indonesia 20 - Oct - 2024 24 - Oct - 2024 8700 GBP
Singapore , Singapore 20 - Oct - 2024 24 - Oct - 2024 8400 GBP
Washington , United States 20 - Oct - 2024 24 - Oct - 2024 13500 GBP
Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia 27 - Oct - 2024 31 - Oct - 2024 5300 GBP
Rome , Italy 27 - Oct - 2024 31 - Oct - 2024 7900 GBP
Barcelona , Spain 27 - Oct - 2024 31 - Oct - 2024 8300 GBP
Zurich , Switzerland 27 - Oct - 2024 31 - Oct - 2024 8700 GBP
Dubai , UAE 6 - Oct - 2024 10 - Oct - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 6 - Oct - 2024 10 - Oct - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 6 - Oct - 2024 10 - Oct - 2024 9100 GBP
London , UK 13 - Oct - 2024 17 - Oct - 2024 5950 GBP
Madrid , Spain 13 - Oct - 2024 17 - Oct - 2024 7500 GBP
Munich , Germany 13 - Oct - 2024 17 - Oct - 2024 8900 GBP
Berlin , Germany 13 - Oct - 2024 17 - Oct - 2024 8300 GBP
New York , United States 13 - Oct - 2024 17 - Oct - 2024 12750 GBP
Amsterdam , Netherlands 13 - Oct - 2024 17 - Oct - 2024 9100 GBP
Dubai , UAE 27 - Oct - 2024 31 - Oct - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 27 - Oct - 2024 31 - Oct - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 27 - Oct - 2024 31 - Oct - 2024 9100 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 6 - Oct - 2024 10 - Oct - 2024 11500 GBP
Milan , Italy 13 - Oct - 2024 17 - Oct - 2024 7500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 27 - Oct - 2024 31 - Oct - 2024 11500 GBP
London , UK 17 - Nov - 2024 21 - Nov - 2024 5950 GBP
Madrid , Spain 17 - Nov - 2024 21 - Nov - 2024 7500 GBP
Munich , Germany 17 - Nov - 2024 21 - Nov - 2024 8900 GBP
Berlin , Germany 17 - Nov - 2024 21 - Nov - 2024 8300 GBP
New York , United States 17 - Nov - 2024 21 - Nov - 2024 12750 GBP
Amsterdam , Netherlands 17 - Nov - 2024 21 - Nov - 2024 9100 GBP
Dubai , UAE 24 - Nov - 2024 28 - Nov - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 24 - Nov - 2024 28 - Nov - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 24 - Nov - 2024 28 - Nov - 2024 9100 GBP
Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia 3 - Nov - 2024 7 - Nov - 2024 5300 GBP
Rome , Italy 3 - Nov - 2024 7 - Nov - 2024 7900 GBP
Barcelona , Spain 3 - Nov - 2024 7 - Nov - 2024 8300 GBP
Zurich , Switzerland 3 - Nov - 2024 7 - Nov - 2024 8700 GBP
Istanbul , Turkey 10 - Nov - 2024 14 - Nov - 2024 5550 GBP
Bali , Indonesia 10 - Nov - 2024 14 - Nov - 2024 8700 GBP
Singapore , Singapore 10 - Nov - 2024 14 - Nov - 2024 8400 GBP
Washington , United States 10 - Nov - 2024 14 - Nov - 2024 13500 GBP
Dubai , UAE 10 - Nov - 2024 14 - Nov - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 10 - Nov - 2024 14 - Nov - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 10 - Nov - 2024 14 - Nov - 2024 9100 GBP
Dubai , UAE 17 - Nov - 2024 21 - Nov - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 17 - Nov - 2024 21 - Nov - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 17 - Nov - 2024 21 - Nov - 2024 9100 GBP
Milan , Italy 17 - Nov - 2024 21 - Nov - 2024 7500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 24 - Nov - 2024 28 - Nov - 2024 11500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 10 - Nov - 2024 14 - Nov - 2024 11500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 17 - Nov - 2024 21 - Nov - 2024 11500 GBP
Istanbul , Turkey 15 - Dec - 2024 19 - Dec - 2024 5550 GBP
Bali , Indonesia 15 - Dec - 2024 19 - Dec - 2024 8700 GBP
Singapore , Singapore 15 - Dec - 2024 19 - Dec - 2024 8400 GBP
Washington , United States 15 - Dec - 2024 19 - Dec - 2024 13500 GBP
Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia 22 - Dec - 2024 26 - Dec - 2024 5300 GBP
Rome , Italy 22 - Dec - 2024 26 - Dec - 2024 7900 GBP
Barcelona , Spain 22 - Dec - 2024 26 - Dec - 2024 8300 GBP
Zurich , Switzerland 22 - Dec - 2024 26 - Dec - 2024 8700 GBP
Dubai , UAE 8 - Dec - 2024 12 - Dec - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 8 - Dec - 2024 12 - Dec - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 8 - Dec - 2024 12 - Dec - 2024 9100 GBP
London , UK 1 - Dec - 2024 5 - Dec - 2024 5950 GBP
Madrid , Spain 1 - Dec - 2024 5 - Dec - 2024 7500 GBP
Munich , Germany 1 - Dec - 2024 5 - Dec - 2024 8900 GBP
Berlin , Germany 1 - Dec - 2024 5 - Dec - 2024 8300 GBP
New York , United States 1 - Dec - 2024 5 - Dec - 2024 12750 GBP
Amsterdam , Netherlands 1 - Dec - 2024 5 - Dec - 2024 9100 GBP
Dubai , UAE 22 - Dec - 2024 26 - Dec - 2024 5722.5 GBP
Paris , France 22 - Dec - 2024 26 - Dec - 2024 7900 GBP
Hong Kong , Hong Kong 22 - Dec - 2024 26 - Dec - 2024 9100 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 8 - Dec - 2024 12 - Dec - 2024 11500 GBP
Milan , Italy 1 - Dec - 2024 5 - Dec - 2024 7500 GBP
Tokyo , Japan 22 - Dec - 2024 26 - Dec - 2024 11500 GBP

Course Syllabus

Course Description

Protection of Electrical Power Systems requires an understanding of system faults and their detection, as well as their safe disconnection from the power system. This course presents a comprehensive and systematic description of the concepts and principles of operation and application of protection schemes for power generators. The course begins with an overview of power system faults and the protection scheme requirements for the detection and coordinated clearance of these faults. This course deals with protection systems from a practical perspective, and includes important functional aspects such as testing and coordination of protection systems. It is specially designed for industries and utilities, which depend on proper system protection for operational efficiency and minimizing damage to equipment.

The 5 days course is designed to provide excellent understanding on both a theoretical and practical level to attendees. The workshop starts at a basic level, to ease the engineer and technician into the perhaps forgotten art of studying, and provide a refresher to those who are more familiar with the basic topics covered. The workshop then moves onto more detailed applications. The workshop features an introduction covering the need for protection, fault types and their effects, simple calculations of short circuit currents and Generator neutral grounding configurations. The workshop also includes some Simulation work using ETAP power station for simple fault calculations, & recommended relay settings for generators as per recommended practice and based on setting rules.

Course Objective

The aim of this course is to provide in-depth discussions of the major electrical protection schemes associated with synchronous generators. The principles and criteria presented are applicable to both large and small machines. The discussions include analysis of the damage and damaging mechanisms relating to each protective function. An understanding of these parameters is important not only for the application of protection but also when operability issues arise during or after abnormal operating events.
Recommended settings applied to any protective device represent a balance between adequate sensitivity to detect a damaging condition and the security required to prevent false tripping during events that do not threaten the protected equipment. The importance of this balance at generation facilities is highlighted by the intense scrutiny given these protection schemes in the wake of large-scale system outages.

Course Outline

Generator Short Circuit Calculations

  • Introduction
  • Short-Circuit Current Characteristics
  • Generator Internal Magnetics
  • Generator Magnetic Structures
  • Generator Constants
  • Fault Current Calculations
  • Initial Load
  • Fault Calculation Overview
  • Determination of Xf and Fault Currents
  • Three-Phase Short Circuit
  • Phase-to-Phase Short Circuit
  • Phase-to-Ground Fault
  • Other Fault Conditions
  • DC Component of Short-Circuit Current
  • RMS Asymmetrical Current
  • Voltage Regulator
  • Short Circuit Calculation Examples
  • Establish Prefault Conditions
  • Three-Phase Fault at Generator Terminals
  • Effects of the Automatic Voltage Regulator

Generator Differential Relay (87G)

  • Introduction
  • Ideal Differential Relay
  • Practical Considerations
  • CT Ratings
  • CT Saturation
  • CTs and Fault Current Replication
  • Percentage Differential Relay
  • Relay Characteristics
  • Electromechanical Relays
  • Solid-State and Microprocessor Relays
  • Minimum Operating Current Setting
  • Slope Setting
  • Requirements for Slope Setting
  • Advantage of Low Slope
  • Sensitivity and Load Current
  • Relay Response to Saturation
  • Methods of Choosing Slope Settings
  • Manufacturer’s Recommendations
  • Qualitative Determination of Slope
  • Error Current Calculations for Unsaturated CT
  • Mason’s Method
  • Example of Mason’s Method
  • Fundamental Frequency Analysis
  • Sample System Differential Relay
  • Sample System Differential Circuit
  • Electromechanical Relay
  • Specifications for Relay Chosen
  • Choosing Slope Static and Microprocessor Relays
  • Stabilizing Resistor
  • Balancing Burden
  • Time Delay
  • Frequency Response
Backup Fault Protection
  • Purpose and Implementation
  • Standard Overcurrent Relays
  • Voltage-Dependent Relays
  • Electromechanical vs. Electronic Relays
  • Voltage Supervised Overcurrent Relays
  • Voltage-Controlled and Voltage-Restrained Relays
  • Application Options and Fault Sensitivity
  • Scheme Sensitivity vs. Potential Transformer (PT) and Current Transformer (CT) Connection
  • Sensitivity Related to Relay Type
  • Delta Relay Currents
  • Settings Considerations
  • Basic Requirement
  • Automatic Voltage Regulator in Service
  • 51 V Transmission System Backup Limitations
  • Effects of Wye-Delta Transformer
  • Self-Excitation Generators
  • Relay Response to Transient Current
  • Equipment Protection
  • Setting Criteria
  • Relay Current and Voltage Calculations
  • Relay Current and Voltage Equations
  • Sequence Currents and Voltages Calculations
  • Sample System 51 V Relay Settings
  • Fault Calculations
  • Choosing the Undervoltage Setting
  • Choosing Overcurrent Setting
  • Choosing Time Delay Setting
  • Auxiliary PTs to Correct for Wye-Delta Phase Shift
  • Distance Relays
  • Distance Relay Characteristics
  • Z Measured by Phase Distance Relay
  • Mho Distance Relay
  • System Impedance vs. Relay Characteristic
  • Setting Considerations
  • Load Limits
  • Apparent Impedance
  • Influence of an Interposing Wye-Delta Transformer
  • Auxiliary PTs to Correct for Wye-Delta Phase Shift
  • Other Distance Relay Applications

Generator Ground Fault Protection

  • Introduction
  • Generator Grounding Considerations
  • Ground Fault Current Limitation
  • Overvoltage Concerns
  • Core Damage Cause by Ground Fault
  • Methods of Grounding
  • Ungrounded System
  • Solidly Grounded/Effectively Grounded
  • High-Impedance Grounding
  • Distribution Transformer Grounding
  • High-Resistance Grounding on Sample System
  • Ground Fault Neutralizers
  • Low-Impedance Grounding
  • Low-Resistance Grounding
  • Low-Reactance Grounding
  • Grounding Transformers
  • Ground Fault Protection
  • Alarm vs. Tripping for High-Impedance Grounded System
  • Electromechanical and Electronic Relays
  • High-Impedance Ground Protection
  • Neutral Overvoltage Scheme
  • Application of 59GN on Sample System
  • Broken Delta Overvoltage Scheme
  • Overcurrent Scheme
  • Low-Impedance Ground Protection
  • Ground Differential
  • 100% Stator Protection Schemes
  • Third-Harmonic Schemes
  • Third-Harmonic Undervoltage Scheme Settings for Sample System 27H Scheme
  • Third-Harmonic Overvoltage Scheme
  • Third-Harmonic Voltage Ratio Scheme
  • Neutral Injection Scheme

Unbalanced Current Protection

  • Introduction
  • What Is Negative-Sequence Current?
  • Effects of Negative-Sequence Current
  • Rotor Heating
  • Cylindrical Rotor Generators
  • Salient Pole Generators
  • Pulsating Torque
  • Generator Negative-Sequence Capability
  • Continuous Unbalanced Capabilities
  • Short Time Unbalanced Currents
  • Sources of Negative Sequence Current
  • Unbalanced Faults
  • Open Phases
  • In-Service I22t Duty vs. Standards
  • Calculation of I22t Duty
  • Isolated Generator
  • The Interconnected Generator
  • The’venin’s Equivalent Circuit
  • Unbalanced Duty on Sample System
  • Unbalanced Current Protection
  • Negative-Sequence Relay Settings
  • Calculation of Open-Circuit Current
  • Negative Sequence Relay Setting

Motoring Protection

  • Introduction
  • Effects of Motoring
  • Consequences for a Steam Turbine
  • Consequences for Other Prime Movers
  • Protection
  • Mechanical Protection: Steam Turbines
  • Electrical Protection
  • Sequential Trip Logic
  • Backup Protection
  • Setting Device (32)
  • Applying Reversed Power Relay on the Sample System
  • Field Winding Protection
  • Field Ground Protection
  • Field Ground Hazard
  • Field Ground Protection
  • Field Ground Detection
  • Field Ground Relay Selection and Settings
  • Field Overcurrent Protection
  • Field Overcurrent Transients
  • Overcurrent Protection Schemes
  • Application of AC Relays to Protect the Field Winding
  • Basic Rectifier Operation
  • Relay Quantities
  • Settings For Field Overcurrent/Overvoltage Relays
  • Full Load Values
  • Maximum Field Current
  • Maximum Field Current from a Bridge Rectifier
  • Applying Field OC Protection on the Sample System
  • Rated Field Voltage
  • Maximum Available Field Current
  • Pickup Setting

Overexcitation

  • Introduction
  • Causes of Overexcitation
  • Damage
  • V/Hz Limits
  • Protection
  • Field Monitoring Relays
  • V/Hz Limiter
  • V/Hz Relay Applications
  • Settings
  • Generator V/Hz Settings
  • Transformer Settings
  • Generator/Transformer Settings
  • Setting Limitations
  • Time Delay Settings
  • Differential Relay Response to Overexcitation
  • Application of V/Hz Protection on the Sample System
Abnormal Frequency Protection
  • Introduction
  • Effect on Generator
  • Steam Turbines
  • Combustion Turbines
  • Hydro Generators
  • Excitation System
  • Protection and Settings
  • Primary Protection
  • Backup Protection
  • Combustion Turbine Generators Protection

Minimum Excitation Limiter (MEL)

  • Overview of the Minimum Excitation Limiter Application
  • Operation in the Leading Mode
  • Limits on Leading Var Operation
  • Setting Criteria Background
  • Setting Criteria
  • Generator Leading Var Capability
  • Stator End-Core Heating in the Round Rotor Generator
  • Leading Var Capability of a Salient Pole Machine
  • Coordination with the LOF Relay
  • System Stability Limits
  • Classical View of Steady-State Stability
  • Manual Regulator Steady-State Stability Limit
  • Automatic Regulator Stability Limits
  • MEL Protective Characteristic
  • Straight Line Characteristic
  • Multisegment Straight Line
  • Circular Characteristic
  • MEL Dynamic Performance
  • Problems with MEL Stability
  • Interaction with V/HZ
  • Isolated on Capacitive Load
  • MEL Application on the Sample System

Loss of Synchronism

  • Introduction
  • Turbine Generator Damage
  • Transient Stability
  • Out-of-Step Protection
  • Classical Swing Impedance Characteristic
  • Dynamic Swing Representation
  • Setting Consideration
  • Recoverable Swings
  • Current Limitation
  • Out-of-Phase Switching Rating for Breakers
  • Swing Velocity
  • Out-of-Step Relay: Device (78)
  • Simple Mho Scheme
  • Single Blinder Scheme
  • Double Blinder
  • Double Lens and Concentric Circle Schemes
  • Detection Problems
  • Setting Out-of-Step on Sample System

Loss of Field (LOF) Protection

  • General
  • Other Factors Affecting Loss of Field Severity
  • System Impact
  • Generator Damage
  • Stator Winding Overload
  • Rotor Damage
  • Stator End-Core Damage
  • Torque Pulsations
  • Loss of Field Protection: Device (40)
  • Distance Relay Schemes
  • Distance Scheme 1: Unqualified Trip Scheme
  • Coordination for Stable Swings
  • Coordination with Minimum Excitation Limiter and Generator Capability Curve
  • Modified Scheme: Two Impedance Elements
  • Distance Scheme 2: Qualified Trip Scheme
  • Trip Delay Considerations
  • Criteria for Setting Mho Characteristic
  • Undervoltage Element
  • Modified Scheme
  • Special Consideration for Bussed Generators
  • Other Causes for LOF Relay Operations
  • Operator Error on Startup
  • Frequency-Sensitive Excitation Systems
  • LOF Relays During System Disturbances
  • Special Considerations for Hydro Units
  • Application of the LOF on the Sample System
  • Application of Scheme 1 on the Sample System Generator
  • Setting Review against Dynamic data
  • Application of Scheme 2 on the Sample System Generator
  • Setting Review against Dynamic Data

Protection Elements & Main Settings Criteria

  • Differential Protection
  • Undervoltage protection
  • Overvoltage protection
  • Reverse Power protection
  • Loss of Excitation
  • Time Overcurrent with voltage control
  • Unbalalnce protection
  • Third harmonic neutral unvervoltage
  • Stator ground fault/Restricted Ground Fault
  • Neutral Overvoltage
  • Under frequency protection
  • Over frequency protection
  • Overfluxing protection

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